Viscose, also known as rayon, is a semi-synthetic fiber made from the cellulose of wood or plant pulp. It is widely used in textiles and has gained popularity for its versatility, softness, and drapability. However, the manufacturing process of viscose has raised environmental concerns due to the use of hazardous chemicals. In this article, we will explore what viscose is, how it is made, and the environmental impact of its production.

What is Viscose?

Viscose is a type of regenerated cellulose fiber that is made by dissolving cellulose from wood or plant pulp in a chemical solution and regenerating it into filament form. The resulting fiber has a luxurious feel and is highly absorbent, making it ideal for making clothing, bedding, and other textiles.

Viscose fibers can be produced in a variety of forms, including viscose staple fiber (VSF), which is used for spinning yarns, and viscose filament yarn (VFY), which is used for weaving fabrics. Viscose can be blended with other fibers such as cotton, wool, or silk to enhance its properties.

How is Viscose Made?

The manufacturing process of viscose involves several stages. Firstly, wood or plant pulp is treated with chemicals such as sodium hydroxide and carbon disulfide to break down the cellulose and form a viscous yellow solution called viscose. This solution is then aged and filtered to remove impurities before being extruded through spinnerets into a bath of sulfuric acid. This process regenerates the cellulose into a solid thread, which is then washed, bleached, and dried to produce viscose fiber.

While the resulting fiber is soft, breathable, and comfortable to wear, the manufacturing process is highly polluting and energy-intensive. The use of hazardous chemicals such as carbon disulfide, which is toxic and flammable, has raised concerns about the environmental impacts of viscose production.

The Environmental Impact of Viscose Production

Viscose production has environmental implications, mainly due to the chemicals used in its production. The discharge of chemicals during the manufacturing process poses significant risks to waterways and threatens aquatic life. Furthermore, the large quantities of wood and chemical inputs required for viscose production have led to deforestation and habitat loss, which can have negative ecological impacts.

In response to these concerns, several initiatives have been launched to promote sustainable viscose production. These initiatives aim to reduce the environmental impact of viscose production by promoting best practices in the industry, such as reducing chemical use and waste, improving water and energy efficiency, and monitoring social and environmental impacts.


In conclusion, viscose is a versatile and popular fiber used in textiles worldwide. However, its production has environmental implications that must be addressed. While initiatives are focusing on making viscose production more sustainable, it is essential for consumers to take responsibility and choose products made from sustainable viscose to minimize its impact on the environment.